Pipe Stress Calculator






Design maximum ring bending stress for Ductile Iron pipe is 48,000 psi, which provides safety factors under trench loading of at least 1. 0 worksheet (right-click, chose "Save Target As", and change the extension…. Set the pitot tube at a reference position. The shearing stress at the wall remains stable at the area where the velocity profile remains stable. High Pressure Piping -5 General High Pressure: A service for which the owner specifies the use of Chapter IX [of B31. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Spielvogel, Siegfried Werner. 0254) 3 = = = − τ (note that the yield stress in this material is about 380MPa) 2. Piping Stress analysis is a term applied to calculations, which address the static and dynamic loading resulting from the effects of gravity, temperature changes, internal and external pressures, changes in fluid flow rate and seismic activity. Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. Thin sections often have negligibly small radial stress , but accurate models of thicker-walled cylindrical shells require such stresses to be taken into account. Note! - that in addition stress caused by pressure - stress can be induced in the pipe or cylinder wall by restricted temperature expansion. See full list on gigacalculator. listed stress analysis calculation numbers ~nd identified if postulated pipe break locations have -changed. Jacketed piping systems require special stress analysis and you will need to check for sustained and expansion stress check, including checking of buckling load. These principal membrane plus bending stresses are obtained from the tensor whose components are obtained by substituting T = Node 1 and T=Node 2. Use our ANSI Pipe Chart to determine the nominal pipe size, wall thickness, weight and schedule designations. Where: t c = Corrosion allowance, inches; t th = thread or groove depth, inches; P = internal design pressure, psig. In designing equipment, it is seen that it sustains the stress imposed on it from the external and the internal pressures, and this pressure is termed as design pressure. 2400 dollars. • PIPE FITTINGS :SEAMLESS-SIZE UP TO 1/2 “NB – 24” NB, • PIPE FITTINGS :ERW-SIZE UP TO 1/2 “NB – 120” NB, • FORGE FITTINGS:SIZE UP TO ¼” NB – 4” NB. For pressure design calculation, the inside diameter of the pipe is the maximum value allowable under the purchase specification. Note that the maximum shear stress in the cross section is 50% higher than the average stress V/A. Textile calculations simplified. txt) or read online for free. In many applications conventional hand calculations provide the most cost effective and expedient manner in which to assess the performance and conduct design sizing of a mechanical structure. Do I have a total water column of 850 mWS (50 mWS in the tank + 800 mWS in the vertical pipe) or is it just 50 mWS? Can I use the calculator?. This formula is expressed mathematically as ? = F/(tl). Calculate contact pressure and check stability 7. Coordination with others disciplines, civil, mechanical and piping design. The calculation of both actual and allowable stresses in piping systems subject to movement and large temperature changes is complex and requires special expertise. Trunnion supports. 3 TW-2010 are not valid for surface finishes rougher than 32 Ra. tee , See ell. See full list on pumpsandsystems. This factor is called the Stress Concentration Factor. Author Strong, John Henry, 1883-Published. This calculator calculates required thickness of a pipe under internal pressure based on criteria specified in section 302. 3 Pressure Piping […]. The stress values in this range exceed 66 2/3 % but do not exceed 90% of the yield strength at temperature. discharge rate) given its diameter (for a round pipe, height & width for a rectangular one) and the velocity of the liquid or gas flowing through it. For pressure design calculation, the inside diameter of the pipe is the maximum value allowable under the purchase specification. Design, model, and analyze 3D piping systems to international piping specifications based on parametric component catalogs. Low cost engineering calculations software available for convection heat transfer coefficients, pipe flow/friction factor calculations, partially full pipe flow calculations, watershed time of concentration, rational method, orifice and venturi meter flow rate calculations, open channel flow measurement, activated sludge wastewater. Performing Pipe Stress analysis of Critical Piping Systems in accordance with ASME B31. Piping Flexibility Analysis and the Development of PCS – Pipe Calculation System for Abaqus Carlos Eduardo A. For annealed copper tube: E=17,000,000 psi P=6,000 psi. , I-beams, channels, angle iron, etc. The elevation gradient, along with the location and volume of the water source, and the pipe design data should be used to determine the length and number of test segments. 3 TW-2010 are not valid for surface finishes rougher than 32 Ra. Another possibility is a pipe that is pulled, pressurized and twisted at the same time. Worldwide pipe offers line pipe to a wide range of industries. 0137 Kg/CM 2G Longitudinal bending stress in compression, S 1 = - M 1 / K8 R 2 ts -15016. PIPESPANS is a spreadsheet program written to determine the maximum stress and deflection of a pipe. Figure 2: Schematic of the deflection of a buried pipe due to vertical loading. Shear Stress (t) is a measure of the force of friction from a fluid acting on a body in the path of that fluid. Note! - if there is pressure in the pipe - the axial and circumferential (hoop) stress may be added to restricted temperature expansion stress by using vector addition. The main equations of standards are shown in Ta-. 1 allows a direct comparison of the triaxial criterion with the API ratings. 1 (especially of steam pipe systems up to 570°C) - Pipe stress calculations and optimization in Rohr2 acc. S = Allowable Stress value for material from ASME B31. 2 of Pipe Stress Engineering published by Peng Engineering. Selecting the correct pipe support span is an important aspect of piping design. With every calculator, you can read the full theoretical explanation and check calculation formulas. The pipe's size and the thickness of its wall increase the pressure that it can withstand. 3001 WEST HIGHWAY 42 LaGRANGE, KY 40031-9565 Phone: (502) 222-4000 Fax: (502) 222-4006. Ingénieur calcul mécanique (piping stress calculation) Edvance. Here is the online Thin Walled Cylinder Hoop Stress calculator which helps to calculate hoop stress of thin wall tubes, pipe, pressure vessel. Why Are My Philodendrons Turning Yellow? Only water your Philodendron when the top 25% of the soil in the pot is dry. Bending Stress (psi) Energy (joules) This is a Javascript calculator to compute the defection of simple rectangular beams. Hence the above stress is called Circumferential or Hoop Stress. 3 Internationally. Click to Print Our Line Sheet. This factor is called the Stress Concentration Factor. 2012 nick: lindnebrio piping calculations excel download pipe calculation excel - Free Download PipingOffice - Piping Calculators Pipe Flow-Friction Factor Calculations with. weight of pipe Thickness of pipe can be calculated as : t = 2(S E PY) PxD a + [4]. The second development of the code is used to reasonably solve the problem with one actual aqueduct in hydraulic engineering. 5 x Design Pressure. ) Time Transient Analysis (Slug Flow, Water Hammer, etc. Thermacor is a leading provider of pre-insulated piping systems. It assumes the beam is supported on one end and the force is applied to the other end perpendicular to the width. 0 and the yield stress is 250 MPa. Based on stress types, each stress combinations, presented by ASME BPVC section VIII div 2, is limited to an allowable value which is known as an allowable stress. This enables our engineers to model and subsequently evaluate the structural responses and stresses of piping systems to international codes and standards. for this purpose i want to calculate all transient loads. Second, pipe operating at lower stress can tolerate larger (i. Heavy Weight Drill Pipe or Drill Pipe Buckling induces stresses in the pipe which will cause premature pipe fatigue and pipe failure. For example, the floors in a library might have an allowable stress of 150 pounds per square foot. Hillside Nozzle COMPRESS saves time by calculating chord openings and governing planes of reinforcement automatically. the pipe carries water (utility supplied, regular water) from an overhead tank (at a certain height from ground) height of tank (i. See full list on pumpsandsystems. 3 Process Piping Course 8. Grade B Carbon Steel (ASTM A53, A523, API […]. j Stress concentrations are presented in Chapter 17. The calculator below can be used to calculate the stress in thick walled pipes or cylinders with closed ends. (3) Where, P = Pressure of the fluid in. Why Are My Philodendrons Turning Yellow? Only water your Philodendron when the top 25% of the soil in the pot is dry. The magnitude of the radial stress is usually small when compared with the longitudinal and hoop stresses; consequently it is not specifically limited by the design codes. This has to be a manual calculation and you can’t rely on software alone to provide you the accurate thrust loads. Thus, it can be used to calculate whichever one of those parameters as a function of the other three. This workshe. 5 mm) between supports is permissible. In addition to fracture toughness and strain gradient, these standards also present the procedures for determining K-R curves, stress-life and strain-life fatigue data, threshold stress intensity factors, and reference temperatures. For typical pressure piping applications, the pipe demand calculations for some of these load conditions can lead to inconsequential stress levels. Stress Engineering: Software packages allow engineer to build a 3D model of the piping system, add supports, temperature and pressure information, and see how the piping reacts. listed stress analysis calculation numbers ~nd identified if postulated pipe break locations have -changed. One of the principal obstacles to the increased use of such steels is the severe restrictions placed on them in design codes; of these, the yield/stress ultimate tensile stress (Y/T) ratio limits are particularly restrictive. Length of bend calculations for tube and pipe. For calculating the collapse pressure of a pipe, you first need to calculate the Hoop stress, which is given by :- Stress = Circumferencial Force/(radial thickness*axial length) If the stress. Voorhaar is an experienced pipe stress engineer, he worked at Stoomwezen as an assessor for the approval of piping and pipeline systems according to D1101, NEN3650 and NEN3651, Stoomwezen is the sole notified body in the netherlands for the approval of pipelines and piping systems, Stoomwezen is the sole notified body for the assessment of design, installation and safeguarding of. For this reason, the inside diameter is used for the hoop stress calculation when using the thick wall pipe formula. 95 for electric fusion, double butt, straight or spiral seam weld API 5L = 0. Piping Stress Calculations Simplified. Trunnion supports. The purpose of this tool is to assist industry professionals in the evaluation and selection of HDPE pipe by performing design calculations documented in the PPI-Handbook of Polyethylene Pipe, 2nd Edition. 5 – 10, Use 1 For Bursting Pressure). Selecting the correct pipe support span is an important aspect of piping design. This has to be a manual calculation and you can’t rely on software alone to provide you the accurate thrust loads. Trunnion Local Stress Calculation - Template. The elevation gradient, along with the location and volume of the water source, and the pipe design data should be used to determine the length and number of test segments. S a = axial stress based on the buoyant weight of pipe, and Y p = yield point. In this section, some of our studies and experiences have been presented with the related references. 3 and other design codes. This is a typical pipe stress analysis report here used for a small piping system. Why Are My Philodendrons Turning Yellow? Only water your Philodendron when the top 25% of the soil in the pot is dry. By piping code B 31. To calculate hoop stress just multiply internal pressure (MPa) and internal diameter (mm), thickness (mm) with 2(two) and divide both the answer. For annealed copper tube: E=17,000,000 psi P=6,000 psi. so, just to ask again about the first half of my question, the definition/calculation of wall stress. We’ve created a tube bending calculator and tube bending formulas guide to help you navigate all of the calculations, variables, and prep work. Selecting the correct pipe support span is an important aspect of piping design. For example, piping with a ½" wall thickness: 25,000psi internal pressure in a ½" diameter pipe will result in an end cap force of 491lbf (2189N), a longitudinal stress of 1250psi (8. 4, equivalent longitudinal stress is calculated using maximum shear equation, where hoop stress is added to longitudinal thermal stress. The hoop stress can be calculated for either the minimum wall thickness (nominal wall thickness minus fabrication allowance), or the pressure design wall thickness (minimum wall thickness minus the. P = internal design gage pressure D = outside diameter of pipe as listed in tables of standards or specifications or as measured E = quality factor from Table A-1A or A-1B. When you water, water thoroughly, not stopping until water flows out of the drainage holes. Barlow’s Formula is commonly used in the piping industry to verify that pressure vessels and pipe used for gathering, transmission and distribution lines can safely withstand operation pressures. 8-cm-diameter pipe with a velocity distribution of uðrÞ ¼ 5ð1 2 r2=16 · 1026Þ m=s. Stress is considered as the ratio of Force to Area. Metric round tube beam deflection calculator. The following equation is used to calculate the trench load required to develop a bending stress of 48,000 psi at the pipe invert:. If you have a 20 foot bending radius and an 8 inch pipe, you need to convert one or the other so that they have the same units. if we are doing thickness calculation for carbon steel pipe with ASTM A106B pipe. P = internal design gage pressure D = outside diameter of pipe as listed in tables of standards or specifications or as measured E = quality factor from Table A-1A or A-1B. 2 Formula to calculate the maximum allowable working pressure for piping: Outside Diameter. which is also known as the Colebrook equation, expresses the Darcy friction factor f as a function of pipe relative roughness ε / D h and Reynolds number. An up-to-date and practical reference book on piping engineering and stress analysis, this book emphasizes three main concepts: using engineering common sense to foresee a potential piping stress problem, performing the stress analysis to confirm the problem, and lastly, optimizing the design to solve the problem. This calculator is used to calculate the resulting stresses acting in the weld. The flange leakage calculation can be performed in many. Use our ANSI Pipe Chart to determine the nominal pipe size, wall thickness, weight and schedule designations. If forces inside a cylinder are simplified, another stress called longitudinal stress is derived. What equation(s) do I use to calculate the weight necessary to crush a pipe lying horizontally on the ground and the point at which the initial deformation occurs. Stress can be calculated in a number of ways, however for calculating young's modulus, we will explore this method. PSA5 Pipe Stress Analysis (appbar. 0137 Kg/CM 2G Longitudinal bending stress in compression, S 1 = - M 1 / K8 R 2 ts -15016. Ganesh is a highly motivated and result oriented professional with expertise in FEM calculations, offering over 9 years of expertise in the simulation and analytical calculations of the subsea, plant, oil, and energy structures, and also pipe stress analysis of piping systems. However to check allowable stress values, we should know the material of construction of the pipe. Contrary to most software available, ShapeDesigner makes no assumptions or restrictions on the calculation of shear and torsion section properties. 6MPa) and a hoop stress of 1250psi (8. These three loads on the pipe will cause tension normal stress in both directions (axial and circumferential) and cause a twisting or shear stress. Thermacor is a leading provider of pre-insulated piping systems. Here is the online Thin Walled Cylinder Hoop Stress calculator which helps to calculate hoop stress of thin wall tubes, pipe, pressure vessel. The analysis determines movements and loads throughout the system from which the stresses in the piping material are calculated and checked for code compliance. PSA5 Pipe Stress Analysis (appbar. The formula for the type of hoop stress exerted on the circumference of the cylinder wall is the force exerted divided by the product of the radial thickness and axial length of the cylinder. d o = pipe outside diameter, inches. ) Modal and Harmonic Analysis for Mechanical Piping Skid Design (API 618). The wall thickness initially derived from hoop stress considerations based on design factors, should be such that the longitudinal, shear and equivalent stresses in the pipe wall under functional and environmental loads do not exceed certain values. Modification of any pipe, equipment or structure can be done easy as compared to other software. The next important issue to consider is the idea of principal stresses. In a generic situation, the stress is a full symmetric matrix. The Amazon Book Review. power transient as well as pipe breaks of steam and primary coolant , analysis would be full fledge i mean for all service conditions. Worldwide pipe offers line pipe to a wide range of industries. A drawing of the nozzle through a vertical plane of symmetry is shown in figure 6. com) noise vibration sound rotordynamics Lateral Torsional Pulsation Surge Water hammer Acoustic induced vibration AIV FIV. Piping stress calculations simplified. Pressure stresses, longitudinal and hoop. Analysis of underground piping systems; We provide stress analysis for pipelines on the ground and underground. The stress values in this range exceed 66 2/3 % but do not exceed 90% of the yield strength at temperature. Pipe Stress Stress Analysis. ( wall = 61. Therefore a higher SDR indicates a thinner-walled pipe at any given diameter. Where Sf is the allowable design stress for material of flange and Sn is the allowable design stress for material of the nozzle neck, vessel or pipe wall, both at design temperature (operating condition) or atmospheric temperature (gasket seating), as may apply. The longitudinal stress is stress-state 2; and the internal pressurization of the pipe-line results in stress-state 3, the compressive normal stress, representing conditions on the inside surface of the pipe. Trunnion type pipe supports and vertical riser (stack) type supports may be analysed using Pipemill. 0449788-gallons/foot of pipe to yield 205. Each Fatigue Calculator includes a "Learn by Example" button that will walk you through its input parameters and methods. Each case defines the maximum allowable values for the two principal stresses to avoid failure. 0 and the yield stress is 250 MPa. 28 E-6 m/s surface area is 0. Both calculation routines include the effects of external loads and internal pressure. ) Time Transient Analysis (Slug Flow, Water Hammer, etc. 1951 - Pipe - 114 pages. The calculation is applicable only for uniform pipe without any attached concentrated weight, such as a valve. This calculation can be used to assess resistance to internal pressure for piping not subject to significant external loads (as external loads are not considered there is no check performed on longitudinal stresses). Fluid properties tables are available as well as dimensions of standard pipes. Licenses: Single User License: For use by 1 person. 72 PSIG 203. It is sometimes necessary to contact me for special package information. Feedback This website is currently in development and we welcome any feedback you might have. The manifold connected to the air coolers is a common problem for pipe stress engineers. Author Strong, John Henry, 1883-Published. Hence the above stress is called Circumferential or Hoop Stress. Pipe Stretch Calculation. Bending stress (σ) on beams calculator - formula & step by step calculation to find the bending stress on beams supported by the two neutral axis. Pipe Support Spacing Calculation. Integrate the 3D piping model with pipe stress analysis tools to increase design quality and design productivity. The flange leakage calculation can be performed in many. 254 - pipe stress engineering total -labor hrs 253 - piping material controls total - labor hrs 251 - piping design totals - dwgs, specs, labor hours 253. Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain for membrane stresses and deformations in thin-walled pressure vessels. The outside diameter of the pipe is 168. Voorhaar is an experienced pipe stress engineer, he worked at Stoomwezen as an assessor for the approval of piping and pipeline systems according to D1101, NEN3650 and NEN3651, Stoomwezen is the sole notified body in the netherlands for the approval of pipelines and piping systems, Stoomwezen is the sole notified body for the assessment of design, installation and safeguarding of. IPEBS was established with a vision to offer proactive training & consulting services for Design & Construction of Building Services( MEP 3d Modeling, HVAC, Electrical, Plumbing & Fire Protection Systems) and Process Plant Engineering (Process Piping Engineering, Pipe Stress Analysis, Pipeline Design & Construction, Plant 3d Modeling & Mechanical Equipments). To calculate hoop stress just multiply internal pressure (MPa) and internal diameter (mm), thickness (mm) with 2(two) and divide both the answer. Analysis of underground piping systems; We provide stress analysis for pipelines on the ground and underground. Forming strain of tube or pipe bends Maximum Allowable Stress Values S for Ferrous Materials according to ASME Code Section II, Part D, Table 1A, 2017 Edition. 0, 09/17/2014 REF-3 ASME B31. Read below to find out how to keep your. Direct Liquid Nitrogen. 5 based on ring yield strength and at least 2. Local stress at the point of slipper attachment Piping design codes (eg. Bending Stress Equation Based on Known Radius of Curvature. B) = 203390 N/mm2 modulus of elasticity of carbon steel pipe (A312 TP316L) = 195120 N/mm2 span are based on formulae : d = ( 98 x 10^6 w L^4 / EI ) stress are based on formulae : s = 981 wL^2 / z. qxd Created Date: 2/28/2012 1:49:16 PM. The pipe is in four-point-bending and I want to calculate the maximum bending moment based on an allowable stress for the steel of 226 N/mm2. In this section, some of our studies and experiences have been presented with the related references. The calculation is applicable only for uniform pipe without any attached concentrated weight, such as a valve. Pipe Burst Working Pressure Calculator Barlow's Formula. Pipe Flow Calculations that are almost impossible to perform by hand or by using a spreadsheet are now easily solved with Pipe Flow Expert, to give you instant answers, improving the accuracy of your results, avoiding costly error-prone spreadsheet models, giving you confidence in your piping design and providing a record of your design. Textile calculations simplified. Chapter 6, is expanded, presenting more coverage on electrical strain gages and providing tables of equations. Pipe support stress analysis Pipemill: for the design, analysis and layout of piping components. The allowable stress is determined by both the factor of safety imposed. Hoop Stress; Radial Stress; Axial Stress; If the object/vessel has walls with a thickness greater than one-tenth of the overall diameter, then these objects can be assumed to be ‘thick-walled’. This paper provides a set of stress check equations derived using beam deformation theory. 3 process piping hoop stress for low pressure steel pipe (Table A-1), high pressure steel pipe (Table K-1), and plastic piping. Hi Anup, In my previous one project I had to analyse piping for both seismic and snow loads at the same time. Note! - that in addition stress caused by pressure - stress can be induced in the pipe or cylinder wall by restricted temperature expansion. Databases for material properties, stress concentration factors, and stress intensity factors are included. Thus, it can be used to calculate whichever one of those parameters as a function of the other three. Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. Design, model, and analyze 3D piping systems to international piping specifications based on parametric component catalogs. For code ASME 31. LC Peng, founder of PENG ENGINEERING, is a leading authority in the field of pipe stress analysis and piping engineering. Click to Print Our Line Sheet. In the case of open channel flow, it is the force of moving water against the bed of the channel. In a generic situation, the stress is a full symmetric matrix. To find the stress in the small element, say cube of a piece of pipe, construct a three-dimensional, mutually perpendicular principal axis system with each axis perpendicular to the face of the cube it intersects. 8 2012, the hoop stress is based on the Pipe's Outside Diameter and nominal wall thickness. Siegfried Werner Spielvogel. The help indicates that the mid-plane hoop stress should be calculated. There are rules for low risk piping where computer for stress analysis is not required. 5 – 10, Use 1 For Bursting Pressure). Beam Deflection Calculators - Solid Rectangular Beams, Hollow Rectangular Beams, Solid Round Beams. Aside from the bacterial and fungal issues, your roots should not look brown. The pipe is in four-point-bending and I want to calculate the maximum bending moment based on an allowable stress for the steel of 226 N/mm2. Stress distribution in pure bending: By Hooke’s law, the axial stress is given in terms of the axial strain by the relation. Pipe Support Spacing Calculation. The quality factor is used to account for casting quality, or longitudinal weld joint quality. Here are some great equations and calculations for tube and pipe bending applications. 3 Table A-1 or Table A-1M. Tube Supports. σ = hoop stress in pipe wall, psi. Unlike a solid bean structure, which is predominantly designed for strong support, a pipe structure, which is tubular and hollow in nature is designed primarily for the purpose of transmitting fluid materials. The current version of the software package: dPIPE 5. The cross-sectional area of the pipe wall can then be calculated to. PSA5 Pipe Stress Analysis (appbar. Use of these stresses may result in dimensional changes due to permanent strain. 4, equivalent longitudinal stress is calculated using maximum shear equation, where hoop stress is added to longitudinal thermal stress. B) = 203390 N/mm2 modulus of elasticity of carbon steel pipe (A312 TP316L) = 195120 N/mm2 span are based on formulae : d = ( 98 x 10^6 w L^4 / EI ) stress are based on formulae : s = 981 wL^2 / z. Pipe Support Spacing Calculation. Calculate ASME B31. To calculate the wall shear stress, Darcy friction factor, and average velocity. At that time I had faced this problem. 95 for electric fusion, double butt, straight or spiral seam weld API 5L = 0. com /+1 (614) 410-1606) for any discussion on the topic or to request more information about the. 6Fy - Bolts can be in single shear or double shear as shown below. 33 x Basic allowable stress at temperature. The hoop stress can be calculated for either the minimum wall thickness (nominal wall thickness minus fabrication allowance), or the pressure design wall thickness (minimum wall thickness minus the. The equation used is Barlows Formula which relates the internal pressure of a pipe to the dimensions and strength of its material. Whether the given flange is capable of absorbing the external forces and moments along with the internal pressure due to the fluid, is calculated by stress engi-neers to ensure safety of the plant. OKLAHOMA CITY 3907 N. It is sometimes necessary to contact me for special package information. 5 – 10, Use 1 For Bursting Pressure). 86 MPa) and insulated pipe filled with water or the equivalent weight of steel pipe for steam, gas, or air service, and the pitch of the line is such that a sag of 0. We eliminated all field pipe fitting and minimized field welding and insulation time through our ability to design modular pipe racks and bridges with pre-installed pipe. Where Sf is the allowable design stress for material of flange and Sn is the allowable design stress for material of the nozzle neck, vessel or pipe wall, both at design temperature (operating condition) or atmospheric temperature (gasket seating), as may apply. A 400 mm OD steel cylinder with a nominal ID of 240 mm is shrunk onto another steel cylinder of 240 mm OD and 140 mm ID. Is this a flexible pipe or a rigid pipe. Pipe stress blast calculations should be performed in two steps: a) Blast wind calculations Calculation of pipe stresses, support and equipment nozzle loads due to the blast wind (dynamic drag pressure) alone. -2*T)*SF) Where: P = Fluid Pressure (psi) T = Pipe Wall Thickness (in) O. Pipe dimension chart (11×17) Click to Print Our Pipe Dimension Chart. Includes 53 different calculations. Calculate the circumferential stress due to earth load, S He. They are attracted to moist circumstances. Pipe support spacing. Based on stress types, each stress combinations, presented by ASME BPVC section VIII div 2, is limited to an allowable value which is known as an allowable stress. 6MPa), whereas just 250psi in a 36" pipe will produce an end cap force of 254,469lbf (1,134,700N), a longitudinal stress of. Gross bending stress due to the weight of the pipe, contents and insulation. We can design supports for piping in the hanger and supports module. To calculate hoop stress just multiply internal pressure (MPa) and internal diameter (mm), thickness (mm) with 2(two) and divide both the answer. Software system dPIPE Flexibility and stress analysis of piping systems. Thick Wall pipe Hoop Stress is calculated using internal pressure, external pressure, internal radius, external radius, radius to point in tube. Also, bending is not the only consideration when designing. PSA5 Pipe Stress Analysis (appbar. The methods described in this course can be used in all process industries. Siegfried Werner Spielvogel. Small bore pipe generally includes piping which is two inches and smaller in diameter. Thermal stress calculations should be conducted for piping over 1. The calculator is provided complimentarily during a one-day Kiefner workshop to guide pipeline engineers on how to calculate the stress in buried pipe under surface loading. 0 Allowable stress range: The stress of a piping system lowers within the elasticity range in which plastic flow does not occur by self-spring during several initial cycles even if the calculation value exceeds the yield point, and thereafter-steady respective stress is applied. La défense. Where dn is the nominal outside diameter of the pipe and en is the nominal (minimum) wall thickness of the pipe. The radial interference δis. d o =outside diameter of pipe, in inches. The subsequent results are used to calculate the bending stress (Mc/I) for an SCL of length t from: The next step is to calculate the principal stress at each end of the SCL ( ). Physicsforums. No thermowell in the process industry has a surface finish of more than 32 Ra and the stress limits and calculations in ASME PTC 19. It should be noted that piping code B31. Calculation of the overall stress-strain state of piping systems made from both metal and non-metal (including composites) materials, for given values of temperature, pressure, weight of the internal environment, self-weight of the structure, taking into account the kinematic conditions, as well as the friction in the bearings. The maximum shear stress occurs at the neutral axis of the beam and is calculated by: where A = b·h is the area of the cross section. Hence the above stress is called Circumferential or Hoop Stress. for this purpose i want to calculate all transient loads. For annealed copper tube: E=17,000,000 psi P=6,000 psi. TUBE AND PIPE USEFUL CALCULATIONS-printable PDF. Calculate the shear stress on (a) the pipe wall, (b) at a radius where r ¼ 0. Input and output support metric and imperial. 5″ to the air coolers, since the allowable forces and moments are very small in comparison with the shell and tube heat exchangers. 3 and other design codes. The formula for the type of hoop stress exerted on the circumference of the cylinder wall is the force exerted divided by the product of the radial thickness and axial length of the cylinder. 6MPa) and a hoop stress of 1250psi (8. Finite element simulation of large piping systems requires not only an extensive knowledge of pipe stress analysis, but also a large amount of man-hours dedicated to geometry generation, loads & boundary conditions assignments, calculation, post-processing and finally reporting. Pipe Support Spacing Calculation. This factor is called the Stress Concentration Factor. Solution: Per the equations in AutoPIPE's online help, ASME B31. Shear Stresses in Circular Sections. 2 CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM PIPE SPAN 2. A 400 mm OD steel cylinder with a nominal ID of 240 mm is shrunk onto another steel cylinder of 240 mm OD and 140 mm ID. This has to be a manual calculation and you can’t rely on software alone to provide you the accurate thrust loads. Finally, no "basic stress analysis calculations" guide would be complete without explaining how to calculate the max stress based on a selected safety factor. Stress is considered as the ratio of Force to Area. The pipe is in four-point-bending and I want to calculate the maximum bending moment based on an allowable stress for the steel of 226 N/mm2. Author Spielvogel, Siegfried Werner. A stress engineer's ability to perform classical hand calculations in structural analysis is one of the most important skills highly regarded in the stress engineering circles. Licenses: Single User License: For use by 1 person. One of the principal obstacles to the increased use of such steels is the severe restrictions placed on them in design codes; of these, the yield/stress ultimate tensile stress (Y/T) ratio limits are particularly restrictive. FRP Pipe Stress Calculation Sheet_Edition 18-July-15 - Free download as Excel Spreadsheet (. All intermediate stress states fall into one of the four categories in the following table. Online calculator to quickly determine Water Flow Rate through Piping. The shearing stress at the wall remains stable at the area where the velocity profile remains stable. What equation(s) do I use to calculate the weight necessary to crush a pipe lying horizontally on the ground and the point at which the initial deformation occurs. Author Spielvogel, Siegfried Werner. This effort is ongoing as the reanalysis is progressing. 5 x Design Pressure. Either convert the bending radius to inches, or convert the pipe diameter to feet. The wall-bending stress is then combined with other calculated stresses to calculate the overall stress in the pipe. Click to Print Our Line Sheet. -2*T)*SF) Where: P = Fluid Pressure (psi) T = Pipe Wall Thickness (in) O. The hoop or circumferential stress is higher toward the inside of the pipe than toward the outside. the pipe carries water (utility supplied, regular water) from an overhead tank (at a certain height from ground) height of tank (i. Barlow’s Formula is commonly used in the piping industry to verify that pressure vessels and pipe used for gathering, transmission and distribution lines can safely withstand operation pressures. Trunnion supports. Textile calculations simplified. Multiply the pipe material's yield strength, measured in pounds per square inch, by the wall thickness, measured in inches. Thin sections often have negligibly small radial stress , but accurate models of thicker-walled cylindrical shells require such stresses to be taken into account. Online calculator to quickly determine Water Flow Rate through Piping. Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain for membrane stresses and deformations in thin-walled pressure vessels. Siegfried Werner Spielvogel. weight of the pipe acting downward = WS X 2. High Pressure Piping -5 General High Pressure: A service for which the owner specifies the use of Chapter IX [of B31. 0449788-gallons/foot of pipe to yield 205. 5 Inch 2 Inch 3 Inch 4 Inch 6 Inch 8 Inch 10 Inch 12 Inch 14 Inch 16 Inch 18 Inch 20 Inch 24 Inch 26 Inch 28 Inch 30 Inch 32 Inch 34 Inch 36 Inch 38 Inch 40 Inch 42 Inch 44 Inch 46 Inch 48 Inch 50 Inch 52 Inch 54 Inch 56 Inch 58 Inch 60 Inch. The nature of soil conditions where the pipeline is perhaps buried. The pipe is in four-point-bending and I want to calculate the maximum bending moment based on an allowable stress for the steel of 226 N/mm2. 77 MB Type of compression: zip Total downloads: 5289 By: curtdwelar File checked: Kaspersky Download speed: 7 Mb/s time: 4. ROHR 2 Pipe stress calculation Static calculation for pipe systems: Client: Miscellaneous: Site of erection: Miscellaneous: Our services: Calculation pipe systems according DGRL and EN 13480, design, support condition, specification of special parts, expansion joints, spring parts: Planning period: 2013-2015. 1 Definition of Piping Pipe is a pressure tight cylinder used to convey a fluid or to transmit a fluid pressure, ordinarily designated pipe in applicable material specifications. Performing Pipe Stress analysis of Critical Piping Systems in accordance with ASME B31. σ = hoop stress in pipe wall, psi. The pipe's size and the thickness of its wall increase the pressure that it can withstand. What is Hoop Stress? Hoop Stress, also known as allowable stress, is the stress in a pipe wall. Pipe dimension chart (11×17) Click to Print Our Pipe Dimension Chart. • Shear stress and shear rate • Viscosity and types of viscometers • Rheological classification of fluids • Apparent viscosity • Effect of temperature on viscosity • Reynolds number and types of flow • Flow in a pipe • Volumetric and mass flow rate • Friction factor (in straight pipe), friction coefficient (for fittings,. PSA5 Pipe Stress Analysis (appbar. 1 The cells with RED text on the calc sheets are. IIG'S Thermo-12 ® Gold Calcium Silicate pipe insulation is a high temperature, abuse-resistant pipe and block insulation with exceptional structural strength for use on systems operating up to 1200 ° F (650 ° C). The analysis determines movements and loads throughout the system from which the stresses in the piping material are calculated and checked for code compliance. Pipe Support Cost Estimate. What people are saying - Write a review. Equation (4. Conceptually, the amount of internal pressure produced must be equal to the stress around the wall of the cylinder to maintain equilibrium and for objects to remain at rest. I have yet to take fluid mechanics and I am trying to calculate the shear stress acting on a surface by water. Live load will always changes according to position or distance, while dead load is not depend on these factors but it is determined by design value of dead load itself. Calculate ASME B31. The wall thickness initially derived from hoop stress considerations based on design factors, should be such that the longitudinal, shear and equivalent stresses in the pipe wall under functional and environmental loads do not exceed certain values. These stress values are not recommended for the flanges of gasketed joints or other applications where slight amounts of distortion can cause leakage or. 8 2012, the hoop stress is based on the Pipe's Outside Diameter and nominal wall thickness. Griffin, Jr. Modification of any pipe, equipment or structure can be done easy as compared to other software. sizes range from short-but-deep to long-but-shallow. Thus, the developed length L is simply: L= 7. The hoop stress can be calculated for either the minimum wall thickness (nominal wall thickness minus fabrication allowance), or the pressure design wall thickness (minimum wall thickness minus the. Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. com /+1 (614) 410-1606) for any discussion on the topic or to request more information about the. It is a force pushing against both ends of the pipe. No thermowell in the process industry has a surface finish of more than 32 Ra and the stress limits and calculations in ASME PTC 19. 5 are done in a similar file. The wall-bending stress is then combined with other calculated stresses to calculate the overall stress in the pipe. Senior Flexonics Canada provides this service to complement our flexible connectors and be your one stop piping systems solution provider. This is done by use of various softwares and methods such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA). ) Time Transient Analysis (Slug Flow, Water Hammer, etc. S = Allowable Stress value for material from ASME B31. To calculate the surface area, remember that the area of a circle is πr 2, where r is the circle's radius, which is equal to 1/2 the circle's diameter. Flow Rate Calculator. Equation (4. Note that the maximum shear stress in the cross section is 50% higher than the average stress V/A. Definitions Hoop stress. Pipe stress blast calculations should be performed in two steps: a) Blast wind calculations Calculation of pipe stresses, support and equipment nozzle loads due to the blast wind (dynamic drag pressure) alone. Calculation of restrained pipe portion is shown on figure below. Drill Pipe Buckling Drill Pipe Buckling is a problem that must be avoided at all times. LC Peng, founder of PENG ENGINEERING, is a leading authority in the field of pipe stress analysis and piping engineering. Pipe support spacing. Pipe Load Calculation Formula. It should be noted that piping code B31. , I-beams, channels, angle iron, etc. Good reasons for a piping static calculation: There are many reasons to carry-out a piping static calculation. One can see the maximum shear stress (the radius of the Mohr’s Circle); and the area that is ‘pink’ marks the stress state in the. 18 The effective stress distribution vs. To calculate hoop stress just multiply internal pressure (MPa) and internal diameter (mm), thickness (mm) with 2(two) and divide both the answer. Barlow’s Formula is commonly used in the piping industry to verify that pressure vessels and pipe used for gathering, transmission and distribution lines can safely withstand operation pressures. Piping stress calculation and analysis Belman assist the client on advanced analysis of pressure bearing parts on expansion joints, components and the pipe system itself. Stress distribution in pure bending: By Hooke’s law, the axial stress is given in terms of the axial strain by the relation. Thin sections often have negligibly small radial stress , but accurate models of thicker-walled cylindrical shells require such stresses to be taken into account. The allowable stress is calculated by multiplying the SMYS times the quality factor E and the design factor F. Calculate ASME B31. Transient flow in piping systems such as pressure surge and water hammer can cause both high pressures and high forces. Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain for membrane stresses and deformations in thin-walled pressure vessels. Author Strong, John Henry, 1883-Published. The stress induced in a pipe, which is restrained from expanding is calculated with the following formula: Impact of Thermal Stress on CPVC vs. (Like a triangle shaped diving board with the pointed end over the water). For easy reference, print out this up-to-date chart. Note that the maximum shear stress in the cross section is 50% higher than the average stress V/A. The powerful capability of PIPENET Transient Module to calculate hydraulic transient forces and to generate a force-time history file is used in tandem with pipe stress analysis programs. 6MPa), whereas just 250psi in a 36" pipe will produce an end cap force of 254,469lbf (1,134,700N), a longitudinal stress of. 85 for electric resistance weld = 0. Calculate contact pressure and check stability 7. Moment of natural axis M in Nm, perpendicular distance to neutral axis in m & second moment area of neutral axis I x are the key terms of this calculation. To calculate the wall shear stress, Darcy friction factor, and average velocity. 3 - Flow calculation and optimization - Material optimization. No thermowell in the process industry has a surface finish of more than 32 Ra and the stress limits and calculations in ASME PTC 19. 2) is the Boardman equation. Pipe Stress Analysis (CSA Z662, ASME B31) Pipeline Elastic-Plastic Analysis (Surface Heaves, Integrity Assessment, Landslides, etc. Castigliano Theorem. The cross-sectional area of the pipe wall can then be calculated to. STRESS DUE TO INTERNAL FLUID PRESSURE • Balance of forces on half of the cross section of a pipe. This equation would be used when the pipe stress program is run to determine the SIF for the system being analyzed. 3 TW-2010 are not valid for surface finishes rougher than 32 Ra. In fluid dynamics, the Darcy–Weisbach equation is an empirical equation, which relates the head loss, or pressure loss, due to friction along a given length of pipe to the average velocity of the fluid flow for an incompressible fluid. j Experimental Methods. Note! - if there is pressure in the pipe - the axial and circumferential (hoop) stress may be added to restricted temperature expansion stress by using vector addition. In the course you'll find numerous worked out examples. Mathematically the von Mises yield criterion is expressed as: = where is the yield stress of the material in pure shear. Shear Stresses in Circular Sections. Note! - that in addition stress caused by pressure - stress can be induced in the pipe or cylinder wall by restricted temperature expansion. ENGINEERING. It can be described as: = where: F is the force exerted circumferentially on an area of the cylinder wall that has the following two lengths as sides:; t is the radial thickness of the cylinder. Equation: P = (2*S*T)/((O. maximum shear stress = yield strength/2n. Gross bending stress due to the weight of the pipe, contents and insulation. B) = 203390 N/mm2 modulus of elasticity of carbon steel pipe (A312 TP316L) = 195120 N/mm2 span are based on formulae : d = ( 98 x 10^6 w L^4 / EI ) stress are based on formulae : s = 981 wL^2 / z. Use the function NormalShearDirections to calculate the direction cosines of the plane in which a given normal stress and shear stresses are realized from the principal stress components. Detail information about behind the back calculations is given at the end of this calculator. Pipe stress calculation was design to assure that sufficient pipe strength is provided at the road crossing to anticipated design loads. Design, model, and analyze 3D piping systems to international piping specifications based on parametric component catalogs. This equation would be used when the pipe stress program is run to determine the SIF for the system being analyzed. Bending radius and stress calculations are important for HDD installations. If ends of a pipeline are fixed, a. 3 and other design codes. The nature of soil conditions where the pipeline is perhaps buried. Pipe Wall Thickness. Loads that fall within the design envelope meet the design. Bending Stress (psi) Energy (joules) This is a Javascript calculator to compute the defection of simple rectangular beams. From that, and the diameter of the pipe, you can calculate the bending strain. discharge rate) given its diameter (for a round pipe, height & width for a rectangular one) and the velocity of the liquid or gas flowing through it. Pipe Load Calculation Formula. so, just to ask again about the first half of my question, the definition/calculation of wall stress. (b) After the calculation of the principal stresses. 63 in) and the wall thickness is 7. Integrate the 3D piping model with pipe stress analysis tools to increase design quality and design productivity. Calculate ASME B31. Shear Stresses in Circular Sections. the hot spot stress at the weld toe position will be explained in chapter 3. com Since you know the shape, you can measure or calculate the radius of curvature. Grade A Carbon Steel (ASTM A53, A523, API 5L PSL1 ) Minimum Yield Strength: 30,000 psi Maximum Yield Strength: None Minimum Tensile Strength: 48,000 psi Notes: This grade may be used for standard pipe, line pipe, or conduit pipeas specified in the various ASTM and API specifications. 3 Pressure Piping […]. Considering deadweight, thermal and dynamic effects, system stress levels and equipment loadings are calculated along with loads and movements acting at the support positions. σ = hoop stress in pipe wall, psi. The type of music you listen to, the specifications of the subwoofer(s) you choose, the available space to install your subwoofer enclosure, and other contributing factors all play a role in determining whether a sealed or ported (vented) subwoofer enclosure is better. Pipe Support Spacing Calculation. For analysis and calculation, we use ROHR2, CAESAR II or according to the customer´s individual needs, specific softwares as e. September 17, 2020. The manifold connected to the air coolers is a common problem for pipe stress engineers. Before answering this question I would like to have the material rhea-logy of the pipe in question. This calculator calculates required thickness of a pipe under internal pressure based on criteria specified in section 302. This is a typical pipe stress analysis report here used for a small piping system. Allowable Working Stress Allowable Working. Coordination with others disciplines, civil, mechanical and piping design. This worksheet will: Calculate the tensile forces in the bolts at the flange of a pipe Apply to Civil Engineering and Mechanical Engineering Perform using force, tensile forces, control volume, momentum fluxes, pressure force, momentum, tensile stress, etc. Calculation of restrained pipe portion is shown on figure below. Case Principal Stresses Criterion requirements 1 Both in tension σ1 > 0, σ2 > 0 σ1 < σt, σ2 < σt. Design the footing structure – design for the material based on applicable structural design codes which may use allowable stress design, LRFD or limit state design (concrete). Where Sf is the allowable design stress for material of flange and Sn is the allowable design stress for material of the nozzle neck, vessel or pipe wall, both at design temperature (operating condition) or atmospheric temperature (gasket seating), as may apply. Steel Because the coefficient of thermal expansion of steel is five times lower than that of CPVC, dimensional change due to thermal expansion will be five times less. standard or conventional stress-strain-creep (S-S-C) charts. This paper provides a set of stress check equations derived using beam deformation theory. Stress can be calculated in a number of ways, however for calculating young's modulus, we will explore this method. Assume steel on steel Line is NPS 6, std WT steel, uninsulated and full of water BECHT ENGINEERING COMPANY, INC. We provide standard drawings for drainage, roads, street furniture, bollards, fences and more. The general equations to calculate the stresses are: Hoop Stress, (1) Radial Stress, (2) From a thick-walled cylinder, we get the boundary conditions:. Determine the pipe casing dimension, soil, construction, and operational characteristics. If anyone could specify a bit better if the derivative of streamwise velocity in regard to wall normal direction suffices, I'd appreciate it as I'm confused with definitons given before. The hoop stress shall be checked to see that it is within. l e a d p i p i n g e n g i n e e r 250 - lead piping engineer & staff -total labor hrs plant type: contract type : project name:. com Since you know the shape, you can measure or calculate the radius of curvature. Piping is an assembly of pipe, pipe fittings, valves, instruments and specialty components. FRP Pipe Stress Calculation Sheet_Edition 18-July-15 - Free download as Excel Spreadsheet (. Shearing stress at pipe wall. Flexibility - 9 Friction Workshop Calculate the east-west reactions at the anchors caused by friction. Performing Pipe Stress analysis of Critical Piping Systems in accordance with ASME B31. Thermacor is a leading provider of pre-insulated piping systems. 5 mm) between supports is permissible. Calculation of restrained pipe portion is shown on figure below. The general principles of pipe sizing are described in the ASHRAE Handbook: 1985 Fundamentals, Chapter 34, p. Sealed or ported subwoofer enclosures… this debate will never be settled because the answer is subjective. 4} for the principal stress values {10. Includes 53 different calculations. qxd Created Date: 2/28/2012 1:49:16 PM. PIPESPANS is a spreadsheet program written to determine the maximum stress and deflection of a pipe. Trunnion type pipe supports and vertical riser (stack) type supports may be analysed using Pipemill. Note! - that in addition stress caused by pressure - stress can be induced in the pipe or cylinder wall by restricted temperature expansion. 86 MPa) and insulated pipe filled with water, and the pitch of the line is such that a sag of 0. (Like a triangle shaped diving board with the pointed end over the water). The hoop stress shall be checked to see that it is within. The type of hoop stress measuring wall tension is calculated as the force over the axial length. Ordinary Grade A pipe has a min. 85 for electric resistance weld = 0. Simple Engineering Stress is similar to Pressure, in that in this instance it is calculated as force per unit area. A hollow steel tube has an external diamater of 100mm and a 80mm internal diamater, it is 3m long, and is subjected to a tensile load of 400kN. ENGINEERING. Barlow´s Formula is used to calculate the pipe pressure considering its diameter, wall thickness, and hoop stress (in the pipe material). A pipe stress analysis is performed to verify that the piping system is routed and supported properly. so, just to ask again about the first half of my question, the definition/calculation of wall stress. if we are doing thickness calculation for carbon steel pipe with ASTM A106B pipe. Space requirements for coiled pipe are considerably less. The magnitude of the radial stress is usually small when compared with the longitudinal and hoop stresses; consequently it is not specifically limited by the design codes. Solution: Per the equations in AutoPIPE's online help, ASME B31. Direct Liquid Nitrogen. d o = pipe outside diameter, inches. Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. This intelligent 3D CAD modeling process enhances the value for our clients and allows for the most cost-effective delivery of our project deliverables (such. High Pressure Piping -5 General High Pressure: A service for which the owner specifies the use of Chapter IX [of B31. Loads that fall within the design envelope meet the design. One can see the maximum shear stress (the radius of the Mohr’s Circle); and the area that is ‘pink’ marks the stress state in the. Conversely, too much water can cause brown philodendron leaves as well. The thrust force is required to push the pipeline into the borehole and was investigated by means of Finite element calculations using the ABAQUS software package. Elements resisting this type of failure would be subjected to stress and direction of this stress is along the circumference. Piping system: Pipe calculator for support design (support calculator) against running speed of reciprocaitng equipments (pulsation induced force). Analysis of underground piping systems; We provide stress analysis for pipelines on the ground and underground. Is it possible to calculate pressure at a point in a pipe, where a solenoid valve shall be placed, given that. Axial load and the location of the neutral axis:. The type of music you listen to, the specifications of the subwoofer(s) you choose, the available space to install your subwoofer enclosure, and other contributing factors all play a role in determining whether a sealed or ported (vented) subwoofer enclosure is better. design , level A&B, level C, level D,,test. August 2011. The strain equals (half the pipe diameter) / (radius of curvature). 1 Results of Reanalyses We have examined pipe break locations on Main Steam Piping and it was concluded that postulated pipe break locations did not change. 86 MPa) and insulated pipe filled with water, and the pitch of the line is such that a sag of 0. txt) or read online for free. 24-gallon internal volume by 0. This intelligent 3D CAD modeling process enhances the value for our clients and allows for the most cost-effective delivery of our project deliverables (such. The hoop stress shall be checked to see that it is within. In the case of open channel flow, it is the force of moving water against the bed of the channel. Once the system is accurately modelled, taking care to set the boundry conditions, comprehensive stress analysis calculations are done, modifications to the model are made to ensure compliance with the above. PIPENET Transient Module and Pipe Stress Analysis INTRODUCTION One of the many unique features of PIPENET Transient module is its ability to calculate hydraulic transient forces. Any smooth figure of revolution if R 2 is less than infinity Uniform internal or external pressure, q force/unit area; tangential edge support Stress and Deflection Equation and Calculator. stress, piping, fluid mechanics: title : Calculation of stress in pipe due to fluid pressure: description : WATCH: Create an app in minutes! log in to post rating.
1ctvfbcuohx7 339l2xy6c40 xro1ds70ll11i8 hig6e79mwlqf6n 2w4n0eyec2 k9toi7dfa1 ikoeqiku1y hvm6vot0ob9 s29y79ozse 6fx5hcjf28uyvh enp1hkyum286jp qyyr4a3qlyemz 4fu5us93y9ka 22vpqcg2ulifc 779bnjtno4 o7vufd0fpigz ilxx42umzhml3l 3yj841hz8ibx1b n0gnvygboll40 2e9l15ihu2nhw9 3uqm43mqmzog p1co57g4m78hpm 2a7rhqlsid0f gmoc16gx2pla l75z4w7rg5r9 f1t0wfhslees s1p3d1lo0v wwgn6m8zy5axf6e aao1dwx2c225xea d0t0l8gn7t4